Greenwood, D. J., W. F. Whyte, and I. Harkavy


Greenwood, D. J., W. F. Whyte, and I. Harkavy, 1993. Participatory action research as a process and as a goal. Human Relations, 46: 175–192. doi:10.1177/001872679304600203


Participatory action research is presented as a social research method and process and as a goal that social research should always strive to achieve. After describing the key features and strengths of participatory action research, we briefly analyze its role in promoting social change through organizational learning in three very different kinds of organizations. We argue that participatory action research is always an emergent process that can often be intensified and that works effectively to link participation, social action, and knowledge generation.